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Many people around the world are suffering from the problem of Psoriasis. It is believed that this problem occurs when the skin cells get replaced more quickly than usual. During the research, it is believed that this problem is caused by the immune system. In this blog, we are basically going to know what are the causes and risk factors of the problem of Psoriasis, about which you should know.

Causes of Psoriasis:

Experts still can’t predictably find out the causes of psoriasis, though they know at large that it is an immune triggered reaction. Most of them have different opinions on how psoriasis is caused. Few believe that the faulty epidermis and excessive reproduction of the skin cells is the underlying reason for psoriasis.

The other hypothesis is that it is a result of an aggravated immune reaction or autoimmune response. In this the cells meant for protecting us from foreign bodies and pathogens mistake a normal or good substance for a pathogen, and attack it. This leads to host of follow up reactions including inflammation and damage of good cells. This response is usually initiated when the immune cells fail to distinguish between good cells and bad cells.

In this diseases, T cells, which are one type of immune cells, attack healthy skin cells because of lack of differentiation between the healthy and invading pathogens. These T-cells then migrate to the dermis (inner/deeper layer of skin) and trigger the release of cytokines like in particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). TNFα is responsible for the production of skin cells, as well as inflammation.

Risk factors of Psoriasis:

A risk factor is defined as feature, attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury.

  • Family History: Any individual, who has any relative or family member diagnosed with it, has higher risk of developing psoriasis and the chances usually increase to around 30% more. Genetic makeup of an individual, especially having 3 genes namely SLC9A3R1, NAT9 and RAPTOR, which have been associated with the diseases, further increase the risk.
  • HIV: HIV Patients have increased likelihood of developing the disease because of a compromised immune system.
  • Stress: Anything that put effect on the immune system would increase the chances of developing psoriasis. Stress generates lots of oxygen free radicals and does act as a big challenge to the immune system, thereby acting as a risk factor.
  • Obesity: Obese people are definitely at risk and are more likely to develop plagues in the skin folds and creases.
  • Tobacco Tabacco is cancerous and increases the risk as well as the severity of psoriasis.

 

There are many risk factors behind any disease, in the same way, if we talk about skin cancer, then there are many factors behind it, after which this dangerous problem happens to people, but we can say that some factors are in our hands. There are some factors which we can control, but there are also some factors which we cannot control at all.

Basically in this blog we will know about some factors related to skin cancer which you hardly know.

There are many risk factors to skin cancer, these include:

Older age It is age dependent and chances of getting cancer increase with age since it reflects accumulated exposure to UV radiation.

Daily exposure – Irrespective of age, the more the time spent in the sun, the higher the chances of getting skin cancer.

Weakened immune system Poor immunity and prolonged use of immuno-suppressants in conditions like organ transplantation may increase your cancer risks.

Gender Male members are thrice more likely to develop skin cancers than women.

Moles Although not all moles may lead to cancer, yet the presence of a large number of moles may lead to an increased risk towards developing skin cancer. It is good to show your moles to a dermatologist who can help you find out the chances of it leading to skin cancer. There are certain specific mole types that might be dangerous, although the gross appearance still looks like the harmless mole.

Past history of skin disease/inflammation – Those who have had a history of burns, bone infections and any inflammatory skin disease are at higher risk for developing skin cancer.
Genetics plays a major role and those with family history of skin diseases and cancer are at increased risk for developing skin cancer. Any inherited genetic disease may also lead to getting the cancer.

Smoking – Smokers are more prone to developing skin cancers, particularly on the lips

Chemical exposure – Exposure to certain chemicals like arsenic, industrial tar, coal, paraffin may further increase the chances of getting skin cancer. A lot of cosmetics are loaded with chemicals that are not safe for skin, and might cause cancer on prolonged and regular use

Radiation exposure – Treatment with high energy radiations may also increase the risk for developing skin cancers in the exposed area

Psoriasis treatment – Prior treatment for skin diseases like psoriasis, ultraviolet light treatment.

In today’s time, people have many problems related to stomach like indigestion, abdominal pain etc., due to which many types of problems are also exposed in their body, but among them the most common and painful problem is piles which is commonly used. It is seen in people of 30 to 40 years and even it happens to young people at times.

Hemorrhoids are basically muscle cushions in the anal cavity. It when these cushions get inflamed, problems start to occur. Piles or Inflamed Hemorrhoids are basically lumps found in the rectum or around the anal canal that are full of blood vessels, support tissue, muscle and elastic fibers, which have become swollen and engorged. Piles symptoms are first noticed with the appearance of blood in stools.

Piles can be of various sizes and may be found internally 2-4 cm above the opening of the anus or externally on the outside edge of the anus. Internal piles are more common as compared to external. According to research conducted by Right Diagnosis, about 40% of the Indian population is affected by piles. In the majority of the cases, piles treatment can happen via medication and diet changes. It is estimated that only 10% of the cases require a surgical treatment for piles.

Piles Symptoms

In most cases, piles get resolved on their own by making changes in diet, but it may be a bad experience till the time they last.

In most cases patients suffering from piles may face the following symptoms:

  • Feeling of a hard lump around the anus, this may be due to the presence of coagulated blood, and can be very painful
  • Constant pain while passing stools
  • Presence of mucus discharge and blood in the stools
  • Feeling of fullness even after defecating and going to the toilet
  • Bright red blood after a bowel movement
  • Itchiness around the anus
  • Area around the anus may be red and sore

Causes

There may be multiple causes for piles and these may cause blood vessels around the anus to stretch under pressure which may then swell or bulge. Inflammation of veins usually happens when there is an increased pressure in the lower rectum. This may be due to:

  • Lack of fiber in the diet
  • Consumption of highly processed food
  • Chronic constipation
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Lifting heavy weight
  • Pregnancy
  • Straining when passing a stool

Risk factors

  • Chronic constipation and diarrhea
  • Excessive straining leads to piles
  • Obesity and being overweight
  • Lifting of heavy objects on regular basis
  • Sedentary lifestyle with long sitting hours
  • Pregnancy poses as one of the major risk factors for piles because growth of the baby puts pressure on the pelvis and may lead to enlargement of the anal and rectal blood vessels and consequent development of piles. These piles however, disappear with child-birth

In any type of health issue, antibiotic is definitely given along with medicines, but do you know that the consumption of antibiotic can increase the problem of stones, so if you do not know then you must read this blog in which we have told how to antibiotic can increase the problem of kidney stones.

The Other Side of the Story

Kidney stones are the hard pebble-like mineral deposits that develop in our kidneys. Research has proven that these antibiotics pose a serious threat in the form of kidney stones when we resort to what is called ‘the abuse of medicine’. There has been a considerable spike in the reported cases of kidney stones in recent years. Studies suggest:

  • Although scientists are yet to produce a comprehensive list of all the factors that contribute to the rise in kidney stones, there is enough evidence to suggest that oral antibiotics can raise kidney stone risk.
  • Out of the twelve known classes of antibiotics, five classes of oral antibiotic namely sulfas, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, nitrofurantoin, and broad-spectrum penicillins, are now being linked with a rise in the risk of kidney stones.
  • This risk is seen more in women and also in young children. As leading experts of a study conducted by the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia said, “Over the last 30 years, we’ve seen this dramatic shift in the epidemiology, where there’s a tremendous increase in the number of children and adolescents who are affected by stones . So the disease, which is still the same, is now beginning earlier in life.”

Effects of Antibiotics on our Body

The science behind this risk states that the urinary, intestinal and gut microbiomes in our body, which can also be defined as the colonies of microorganisms that occur naturally, are worst-hit by antibiotics and this leads to developing of kidney stones.

  • Antibiotics change the composition of these microbiomes and cause a disturbance in their bacterial structure. Kidney stones are quite painful, and if they are too large they cannot pass through the urinary tract easily.
  • Such cases of kidney stones need to be treated by urologists who would either remove them or break them down into smaller pieces so that they can easily pass through the urinary tract.

It is difficult to pinpoint the exact relationship between an antibiotic and a patient developing kidney stones. This is because it sometimes takes several years for the kidney stones to develop. The studies that highlight the link between antibiotics and kidney stones, analyzed a sample size of patients who had been prescribed any of 12 different classes of oral antibiotics in the three to 12 months leading up to the study.

Preventive Measures

  • Studies conducted over the recent years highlight that up to 30 percent of antibiotic prescriptions given by doctors and medical practitioners were inappropriate. Doctors should exercise caution while prescribing oral antibiotics, especially to children who off late have become the largest section of the society receiving these drugs.
  • We do not need to stop the usage of these antibiotics completely but necessary discretion must be used while using them. For instance, most doctors today prescribe antibiotics for viral infections which do not even warrant a microbial treatment. A viral infection is treated by the body on its own and pushing antibiotics in your body will not assist or expedite its treatment in any way. Doctors need to keep in mind the risks associated with over-prescription of antibiotics and should prescribe them judiciously.
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